Are You in Tune with Your Patients’ Temperaments?

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The veterinarian we had last time
was great,” a client told me. “She greeted Bruno, he
immediately liked her and she was able to do a full
exam. The veterinarian we had today seemed cold.
She rushed up to Bruno without greeting him and
he got scared and growled. When she went to put
a muzzle on, that was it. We couldn’t do anything
with him after that. I don’t think we can go back
unless we can get the friendly veterinarian.”

What makes one veterinarian so much better
at handling pets than another? It’s all about
reading an animal’s body language so you can
recognize fear or anxiety, knowing how to avoid
approaching in inappropriate ways that make
the pet’s fear worse, and learning how to put the
patient at ease. As a veterinary technician, you
are often the fi rst person to interact with each
patient, so you can set the tone of the entire visit.

Recognizing FEAR
Most people recognize overtly fearful dogs. They
show a cowering response by leaning away,
making themselves small and averting their gaze.
Muscles are tense, the tail is between the legs, and
the ears are fl attened to the back or side. Cowering
is a very clear sign of fear, but many signs are more
subtle and easily missed. When anxious or fearful,
dogs may become hypervigilant, meaning they
frequently glance in different directions in search
of imminent danger. Or they may fl eetingly try
to hide or step away. They may lick their lips
or salivate, yawn, pant or tremble when there is
otherwise no reason for doing so. They may look
sleepy or move in slow motion, which is often
misinterpreted as good behavior. Fear can also show in the facial expression. The facial muscles may be tense, the brow furrowed, and
the ears slightly out or back.

The highly aroused fearful cat will have piloerection of the hair from the back of the
neck to the tip of the tail. He may stand in an arched-back posture with the tail straight
up, while hissing at you. These are the most obvious signs of fear. The sign people often
miss is failure to interact; cats deal with confl ict by trying to avoid the situation. That is,
they fl ee or freeze unless they are pushed to fi ght. In a new environment, a comfortable
cat explores and is relaxed. In the exam room, many cats lie down in one spot with tail
and paws tucked under. This lack of movement is a variation on the freeze response.
If the object they are fearful of
comes closer, they may become
increasingly fearful until they
attack. So if the earlier signs of fear
are missed, the cat may be pushed
to a stage of aggression where he
can no longer be handled that day.

How veterinary staff can

Many people can’t understand why a dog or cat would be afraid of them when they’re
obviously making friendly gestures. If you look at it from a different perspective, however,
the picture becomes clear. For instance, if you’re afraid of spiders and your friend shoves
a hairy tarantula in your face while reassuring you that it’s friendly, would you feel safe?

Similarly, if a dog or cat is fearful of humans and you stare right at him, lean into his personal
space, place your face directly into his, or reach towards him, he may react defensively.

How to greet CORRECTLY
In general, if the pet is showing any ambivalence or lack of interest in you, assume he may
be fearful. To avoid increasing anxiety in a dog, stay out of his personal space and avoid
direct eye contact. Instead, let the dog approach you at his own pace and make fi rst contact.
You’ll do even better if you offer him something he likes, by tossing tasty treats to him. This
works best if the owner has been asked to withhold the dog’s food for the day and bring
his favorite bite-sized treats. The dog is also more likely to eat if the hospital is comfortable
– low traffi c, quiet rooms, lack of sudden loud noises or echoes, and some washable throw
rugs. The room should be comfortable enough that he will focus on the treats you toss to
him, and that will put him in a calm, happy emotional state. If you have to move closer to
him, you can do so by approaching sideways or
backwards. Exams can even be performed from
a position next to the dog and facing forward,
rather than facing directly towards the dog.

We can often keep cats comfortable by
providing a way for them to hide. Exams can
be done with the cat in his crate with the top removed, or under a towel. Avoid automatically scruffi ng cats,
since it can agitate some felines. Instead, control movement
by placing your hand in front of his chest or wrapping a towel
around the front of him so that if he pulls forward the towel
puts pressure against his chest (Handling a Diffi cult Cat:

Continue your thoughtful INTERACTIONS
Once you get through the greeting and the animal
appears comfortable, it’s important to continue practicing
thoughtful interactions. Any quick movement or change in
position can cause the pet to become fearful and snap or
flee. You’ll need to change positions slowly, and even give
treats as you change position around a dog. Avoid leaning
over a dog, reaching over his head or grabbing and hugging
him, which makes him feel confined. Instead, move slowly
and smoothly to give him a chance to back away. Most
important, always be aware of the signals he’s sending you
with his body language.

The body language you’d like to see when greeting a dog is
one that says this whole business is ho-hum, like greeting a
casual acquaintance. The dog should remain relaxed with his
muscles loose rather than tense and stiff. His gaze should be
steady and soft. His tail should either wag in a relaxed manner
or hang loosely down, and he should never suddenly freeze.
Beware of misinterpreting a tail wag. A wagging tail can be
an indicator of high arousal or of a dog in confl ict, debating
whether to approach or fl ee, rather than an indicator of a
friendly, happy pet. In general, a wide, sweeping wag in a tail
held somewhat even with the body is more likely to indicate
the dog is friendly and relaxed. For a cat, the body position
should be relaxed and the tail should remain stationary rather
than twitching.

These tips and others (see sidebar) seem simple, but they make
a world of difference between whether a pet is calm, relaxed
and compliant, or aggressive and unsafe to handle. Practice them
on a daily basis and your clients will see the practice as a petfriendly
hospital and you as the caring technician.

Dr. Sophia Yin is a 1993 graduate of the University of Davis College of Veterinary Medicine. She earned her Master in Animal Science focused on animal behavior in 2001 from UC Davis. Dr. Yin ( has a behavior house call practice and works at San Francisco Veterinary Specialists. She has been a behavior expert for shows such as Dogs 101 on Animal Planet, and is the author of over four books, DVDs and publications, including Low Stress Handling and Behavior Modification. She lectures internationally and is on the boards of multiple veterinary organizations.